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Product > Homogenizer
Omni Bead Ruptor Homogenizer

The NEW Bead Ruptor is the most advanced and easy to use bead mill homogenizer available today. It is specifically designed for grinding, lysing, and homogenization of biological samples prior to molecular extraction. 

Benefits of the Bead Ruptor Homogenizer include:

  • High power mechanical action, horizontal tube positioning, and optimized bead-beating technology deliver fast, efficient, and reliable homogenization and lysis in seconds.
  • Wide variety of sample processing, in volumes ranging from 25 micro-liters - 5mL.
  • Broadest performance range (0.8m/s - 8m/s) and highest disruptive energy of comparable bead mill products.
  • Advanced carriage motion optimizes bead movement inside the sample tubes to minimize swirling. This increases processing efficiency and reduces sample heating.
  • Powerful brushless motor does not require a cool down period between processing cycles to process more samples in a shorter period of time.
  • Simultaneously homogenize either 24 x 2mL or 12 x 7mL tubes
  • Convenient front-loading tube holder position for ease of use and best bead/sample interactions
  • Broad performance range for any type of sample processing: 0.8m/s - 8m/s
  • High reproducibility: number of cycles, time, speed, dwell/pause
  • No Cool-down required between runs: process of hundreds of samples per day
  • 99 programmable memory settings
  • Advanced sample temperature monitoring system
  • Multi-lingual user interface
  • Disposable tubes ensure no threat of cross-contamination or sample degradation

 
Literature

I am very pleased with the performance of the Omni Bead Ruptor. It was one of the first items on my lab start-up list. The superior efficiency and uniform homogenization from sample to sample are well worth the investment." 
Jason C. O'Connor, Ph.D.
Department of Pharmacology
The University of Texas Health Science Center

"This machine is pretty amazing because it revolutionized the way we process plant tissue, especially difficult plant tissues." 
Phat Dang
USDA

 
Bead Ruptor12 Homogenizer

The Bead Ruptor 12 is the most powerful and quickest economical bead mill homogenizer available today. It is an ideal solution for a variety of applications that require grinding, lysing, and homogenization of biological samples prior to molecular extraction.

Using disposable sample tubes pre-filled with a variety of lysing beads, the Bead Ruptor 12 vigorously and uniformly shakes up to 12 tubes at a time providing an efficient, consistent homogenization and high-yield. Unlike most other bead mill homogenizers, the Bead Ruptor 12 does not require a cool down period between runs. This means more samples can be processed in a smaller amount of time.

Benefits of the Bead Ruptor 12 Homogenizer include:

 
Omni Tip™ Homogenizing Kit
   Omni Tip™ Homogenizing Kits include everything you need to homogenize. These kits can be used to process sample sizes from 0.25mL to 30mL with Omni Tips & <200µL to 100mL with optional stainless steel probes. 

Omni Tip Kits come complete with the redesigned Omni TH Motor, patented Omni Tip™ Plastic Homogenizer Probes (in hard or soft tissue versions), Omni Tip™ Adapter, and tool kit all in a convenient storage case. 

Patented Omni Tip™ Plastic Homogenizer Probes are designed to completely avoid cross-contamination between samples during homogenization. Engineered from a durable plastic, they come in two different configurations for soft tissue and hard tissue homogenizing. Omni Tips are available in a standard size of 7mm (Diameter) x 110mm (Length). The outer tube of Omni Tips is made of Lexan 144R, a polycarbonate.The inner shafts are made of Ultem 1000, a polyetherimide.

The Omni Tip Kit is extremely cost effective and will handle a wide range of applications for multiple users making it the perfect homogenizer solution for a small laboratory.
  • Ideal for PCR, RNA, and DNA sample preparation along with environmental, pharmaceutical, microbiological research and soft or hard (frozen) tissue analysis
  • Omni Tips™ are economical and can be disposed of after use or autoclaved up to 7 times
  • No need to order multiple items, everything is contained in one package
  • Omni TH Motor has a variable speed controller that allows for speeds of 5,000 to 35,000 rpm
  • Kits are also available with 5mm, 7mm, or 10mm stainless steel generator probes for more fibrous/tough samples
 
Omni Macro ES Digital Programmable Homogenizer
    The Omni Macro ES Homogenizer is a versatile, programmable homogenizing system that is well suited for laboratory & industrial processing applications such as Food, Cosmetics, Chemicals, Petrochemicals, Dyes and Waste Products.

Blade assemblies for mixing and rotor-stator generator probes for homogenization offer flexibility for blending, suspensions, dispersions, disintegrating, and emulsifications. A digital speed display allows for additional reproducibility and ease of use. The speed ranges of this homogenizer at 1,000 to 20,000 rpm allow for gentle mixing or higher speed homogenization type applications.
  • Microprocessor control stores up to 12 programs with multiple speed, time and ramping functions
  • Speed control from 1,000 to 20,000 rpm maintains constant speed over a wide operating range for accurate (+/- ½%) repeatability
  • Moveable platform stand
  • Quick Connect Coupling assembly included
  • Configures to a wide variety of processing attachments including generator probes, cutting blades, and sealed chamber assemblies
  • Optional RS-232 computer interface and Windows program
  • Quiet 68 db operation at maximum speed
 
Omni Tissue Homogenizer (TH)
  include everything you need to homogenize. These kits can be used to process samples with a range of <200µL to 100mL. They come complete with an Omni TH motor, Omni Tip™ adapter, patented Omni Tip™ Plastic Generator Probes (in hard or soft tissue versions), tool kit and a convenient storage case. The perfect solution for a small laboratory, this kit is cost effective and will handle a wide range of applications for multiple users.
  • Ideal for PCR, RNA, and DNA sample preparation along with environmental, pharmaceutical, microbiological research and soft or hard (frozen) tissue analysis
  • Omni Tips™ are economical and can be disposed of after use or autoclaved up to 7 times
  • No need to order multiple items, everything is contained in one package
  • Omni TH Motor has a variable speed controller that allows for speeds of 5,000 to 35,000 rpm
  • Kits are also available with 5mm, 7mm, or 10mm stainless steel generator probes for more fibrous/tough samples
  • Processing range with stainless steel probes: <200µL to 100mL
    Processing range with Omni Tip plastic probes: 0.25mL to 30mL
    Power Rating: 125 watt 
    Speed Control: Variable from 5,000-35,000rpm 
    Dimensions: Height: 9 in. (22.86cm), Maximum Diameter: 2.5 in. (6.35 cm)
    Weight: 466g (16.4oz)
    Sound Level: < 72 db. 
    Warranty: One year motor warranty 
    Standards Approval: CE approved

     

 
Omni THQ - Digital Tissue Homogenizer
    Homogenize more reliably & more comfortably with the Omni THQ, a digital tissue homogenizer that provides extremely accurate and repeatable results in a lightweight, hand-held design. It includes an integrated digital speed display that ensures consistent results for a variety of laboratory applications. Processing range: <200µL to 100mL 

The THQ features our new Whisper Drive Technology – a brushless motor that is ultra-quiet during operation and virtually maintenance-free. Unlike brush motors, Whisper Drive Technology guarantees accuracy and repeatability, since the motor holds its processing speed to .5% accuracy throughout the homogenization cycle, regardless of fluctuations in sample size or sample viscosity.  
  • Energy efficient 20 watt motor
  • Integrated Digital Speed Display and Controller for accurate, repeatable results
  • Whisper Drive Technology ensures ultra-quiet operation (<65db)
  • Compatible with patented Omni Tip™ Plastic Probes and 10mm stainless steel generator probes
  • Lightweight ergonomic design
  • Includes specially designed stand mount adapter

 

    Processing Range: <200µL-100mL (with stainless steel probes)
                                    0.25mL-30mL (with Omni Tips)
    Power Rating: 20 watts 
    Speed Control: Variable from 8,000-35,000rpm (increments of .5 or 500rpm)
    Dimensions: Height: 19.69cm (7.75 in) height, 6.03cm (2.375 in) max. diameter 
    Weight: 306g (10.8 oz)
    Sound Level: < 65 db. 
    Warranty: Three year motor warranty 
    Standards Approval: CE approved

 
Omni Prep Multi-Sample Homogenizer
    
  • 6-sample simultaneous processing
  • Omni Tip Plastic Probes eliminate the risk of cross-contamination
  • Programmable for consistent sample processing
  • Processing range: 0.25mL - 30mL

The innovative Omni Prep Multi-Sample Laboratory Homogenizer is specifically designed to streamline the labor and time intensive homogenization process and to make it more comfortable for the user. The Omni Prep features our new Whisper Drive Technology – a brushless motor that is virtually maintenance free, is ultra quiet during operation, and uses about 10% of the power required to process 6 samples individually. Unlike brush motors, since the motor holds its processing speed to +/- 1% accuracy throughout the homogenization cycle, Whisper Drive Technology guarantees accuracy and repeatability regardless of fluctuations in sample size or sample viscosity.

  • Process 6 samples per cycle and up to 250 samples per hour
  • Utilizes Omni Tip™ Plastic Probes for elimination of cross contamination
  • Special Stainless Steel generator probes are also available
  • Microprocessor controlled with 3 stored programs for time and speed
  • Process most samples in less than 1 minute
  • Positive airflow that can be exhausted to a HEPA-filter or Fume Hood
  • Sealed and open vessel processing configurations
  • Oscillating (up/down) rack for efficient processing of all size samples
  • Clear door allows for sample viewing and prevents splashing
  • Ultra quiet performance
  • Optional Ice Tray for frozen or sensitive samples
    Processing Range: .25mL to 30mL
    Generator Probes: 7mm diameter
    Power Rating: 150 watt
    Speed Control: 500 to 30,000rpm
    Dimensions: 40cm x 20cm x 30cm (15.7 in. x 7.8 in. x 11.8 in.)
    Weight: 21 lbs (9.53kg)
    Sound Level: < 75 db. 
    Warranty: One year
 
Literature
Please click on the image below for a brochure:

 
 
Omni Ruptor 4000 Ultrasonic Homogenizer
    The Omni Ruptor 4000 Ultrasonic Homogenizer/Cell Disrupter is designed to handle a variety of applications including disruption of cells, bacteria, spores, emulsification of immiscible liquids, homogenization, uniform dispersion of particles in liquids, acceleration of reactions, depolymerization of large molecules and degassing of liquids.

Sample volumes can range from 0.25mL to 1000mL with the availability of different size solid titanium tips. Integral support stands are conveniently adjustable based on container sizes and volume of sample.

The Omni Ruptor 4000 includes an Integrated Sound Abatement Chamber with a clear plastic door to greatly reduce the cavitational sound emitted during processing.
  • Sound reduction chamber with moveable sample shelf
  • Auto-tuning for convenience of use and optimal processing efficiency
  • Process sample volumes of 0.25mL to 1,000mL
  • 0-15 minute adjustable timer
  • Pulse mode for sensitive samples
  • Power-emitted display for accuracy and repeatability
  • Variable power supply
    Power Rating: 400 watts 
    Dimensions: Height: 23.5in. (56.69 cm), Width: 9.9 in. (25.15 cm), Depth: 12 in. (30.48 cm)
    Weight: 32 lbs.
    Warranty: Two year warranty 
    Standards Approval: CSA and CE approved
 
Literature
Listed below are some applications the Omni Ruptor Ultrasonic Homogenizer is capable of accomplishing.

Acetobacter suboxydans - complete disruption in a few seconds 

Actinomyces - 3 minute sonicating produced excellent disruption with 50% protein released and excellent enzyme activity

Actinomycin D - suspended or dissolved in 3 minutes

Aerobacter aerogenes - excellent breakage with better enzyme release than any other method. A low power setting can release sulfatase activity into the supernate with no obvious disruption of the majority of cells. 

Algae scenedesmus - 10 ml concentrated solution completely disrupts in 1 minute

Alkaloids - total amount as well as speed of extraction is greater using the Model 150 VT Ultrasonic Homogenizer than with standard methods. Extraction from ipecac root in 30 seconds yielded more alkaloid than Soxhlet extraction in 5 hours. 

Antibioticus - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies attained in 1 minute 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes. 

Antigen - the Model 150 VT Ultrasonic Homogenizer is extensively used to produce antigens and vaccines, either to increase yield or expose otherwise unobtainable sites. 

Antigen/antibody complexes - these complexes can be broken apart. 

Aorta - 1 gram disintegrates in 2 minutes. 

Aphanomyces - after blending, complete disruption in 3 minutes. 

Arthrobacter tumescans - 10 gm in 40 ml disrupted in 5 minutes for 0 coumaric reductose. 

Ascaris eggs - concentrated solution, 8 ml, complete breakage in 3 1/2 minutes. 

Asperigillus - complete disruption in 4 minutes. 

Aurefaciens - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes. 

Azotobacter Vinelandii - 15 ml buffered solution, 200 mg wet wt. per ml, complete disruption in 2 minutes. 

Bacillus - Stereothermophulus (Thermophillic spore form) 98% disruption in 15 minutes of 70ml of 40% suspension. 

Bacteroides symbiosis - 1 phosphofructokinase a soluble enzyme has been isolated from this anaerobe by ultrasonic treatment. A 25 ml suspension was sonicated for 10 minutes and centrifuged at 36,000 xg for 10 minutes. 

B. anthracis - 80% disruption in 4 minutes Eryisipelothrix rhusipathiae, 10ml complete disruption in 10 minutes. 

B. cereus veg cells - disruption in a few seconds

B. cereus spores - disruption of 6 ml, 13 minutes. 

B. megaterium spores - concentrated 6 ml solution, 15 minutes for complete breakage. 

B. stereothermophilis spores - complete disruption in 2 minutes. 

B. subtilis - disruption of 5 gm wet we., 15 ml buffer, in 5 minutes. 

B. subtilis veg cells - heavy suspension clears in 1 minute. 

Baker’s yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) - 9 grams pressed yeast in 18 ml buffer, complete disruption in 8 minutes. Protein release, 52 mg/ml from an aged sample. 

Blastomyces dermatitidis - 95% disruption in 3 minutes. 

Blood cells - red and white cells can be disrupted in a few seconds. 

Boll weevil tissue - complete homogenization in a few seconds. 

Bone - compact bone can be sonicated and processed for microscopic sections in minutes as opposed to several days or even a week by other methods. Bone specimens treated in this way yielded large numbers of intact cells with little distortion. Malignant criteria were easily recognized. Tumor types studied were ostsarcoma, chondrosarcoma, liposarcoma, chordoma, metastatic bronchogenic squamous and benign giant. Bone can be decalcified without injury to the cells in a short time, processed for microscopic sections, and diagnosed. Other methods require extensive treatment time. 

Brain stem and adrenal gland - sonicating dispersed 10 mg samples in 10 ml fluid, normally difficult without substantial loss of material. Suspension analyzed for nucleotides. 

Brain tissue - complete disruption instantly. 

Brevi bacterium - 25 ml disrupts in 20 seconds. 

Brevi bacterium acetylicum - approximately 3 minutes to disrupt large samples and measure TCA enzyme activity. 

Brine Shrimp - complete disruption in 1 minute. 

Brucella abortes - separates easily from leukocytes. At least 9 antigens extracted. 

Bull sperm - contractile protein more easily extractable from tails after sonicating. 

C. butyricum - vegetative cells easily disrupted. 

C. cylinrosporum - vegetative cells easily disrupted. 

C. Kluyveri - vegetative cells easily disrupted. 

C. pasteurianum - 3 minute disruption for hydrogens reducing Ferredoxin with H2. 

Calcium - mouse Ehrlich ascites tumor cells were sonicated for 1 minute to determine the amount of bound calcium present. Cells were labeled with calcium 45. 

Candida albicans spores - 95% disruption in 35 minutes 15ml solution, 1/2 gm dry wt. 

Carbon black - excellent small particle suspension and deagglomeration. 

Caryophanon latum - sonication yields glucosamine, muramin acid, alanine, glutamin acid and lysine. 

Catecholamine - can be extracted from heart muscle through sonication. 

Cellumonas biazotea - disruption obtained with retention of malate dehydrogenase activity. 

Chemical (and physical) reactions - accelerated by sonication, as are enzymatic processes. 

Chicken sperm - 30 ml complete disruption in 2 minutes. 

Chlorella - 10 ml complete disruption in 3 minutes

Chloroplasts - disrupt in a few seconds. 

Cholesterol - apparent permanent suspension in 1 minute in water. 

Chromatography - prior ultrasonic treatment of absorbent in any convenient solvent for a few seconds eliminates aggregates and results in a uniform, easily packed column. 

Clostridium - quickly disrupts all types. 

Coagulase-globulin - sonicating before precipitation yields much more enzymes. Collagen - an excellent fragmentation. 

Colletotrichum capsici spores - 5 ml with 6 million spores/ml, complete disruption in 4 minutes. 

Corticosteroid - particle size can be reduced to approximately 5 mic. Large volumes can be treated at the rate of approximately 30ml/min on a continuous flow basis. 

Corynebacterium - complete disruption in 4 minutes with 50% protein release and excellent enzyme activity. 

Cryptococcus laurentii - complete disruption in 7 minutes with good protein release and enzyme activity. 

Cryptostroma corticale (maple bark spores) - concentrated 6 cc solution, complete disruption 14 minutes. 

Crystal reduction - large crystals of an organic compound suspended in isopropanol can be reduced in diameter by 10 to 40%.

Cyanidium caldarium - concentrated 5 ml solution disrupts in 6 minutes. 

Decalcify - bone may be decalcified without injury to the cells, processed for microscopic sections, and diagnosed in a short time - as opposed to several days or even a week by other methods. 

Dental plaques - 5 ml solution, concentration 1 to 10,000, low power setting, 53,500,000 organisms per ml were obtained in 45 seconds. 

Desulfovibrio vulgaris - less than 30 seconds of sonicating resulted in release of TCA enzymes. 

Diplococcus - complete disruption in 5 minutes. 

DNA - breaks chain on low power instantly. Controlled degradation may be obtained. 

Dyes - excellent rapid dispersion and homogenization. 

E. coli - 2 gm wet wt in 10 ml solution, complete disruption 40 seconds. The Model 150 VT Ultrasonic Homogenizer has been used extensively in research on this organism. 

Egg whites - can be reduced to homogeneous, pipettable solution in 15 seconds on low power. 

Ehrlich ascites - disrupt in a few seconds. 

Electron microscopy - apertures are quickly cleaned. 

Embryonic duodenum - a 1 ml sample is easily homogenized in 15 seconds with a special Tip. 

Emulsions - 10 ml of most light mixtures become semi-permanent emulsions in about 1 minute without emulsifiers; average particle size is usually well under 1 micron. Sterile emulsions can be prepared by ultrasonic treatment for feeding to germ-free animals. 

Enterococcus - excellent disruption

Erwina cartovara - complete disruption in 1-2 minutes depending on cell concentration. 

Erythrocyctes - easily disrupted in a few seconds. 

Euglena gracilis - complete disruption in a few seconds to isolate chloroplasts. 

Eugoena - 90% disruption in 8 minutes with pigment released. Complete disruption in 12 minutes. 

Extraction - excellent for oils, fats and lipids, alkaloids. 

Fasciola hepatica - complete disruption in less than 1 minute. 

Fat extraction - fat may be emulsified without injuring tissue with proper power selection. Lipid layer can be stripped from spores and mycobacteria. 

Fibrin - complete suspension 1/8 gm in 30 minutes. 

Fish gill - complete disruption of 20mg in 30 seconds. 

Fish tissue - tissue homogenization for extractions, excellent particle size reduction, 8 minutes per 10gm. 

Fluorocarbons - extended treatment time will break down particle size to well under 1 micron and gives a fine homogenate. 

Fossils - low power will clean debris from delicate fossils without injury. Micro fossils such as pollen can be separated from rocks to help identify the geological age of the strata. Removal of rock matrix. 

Fuel oil and water - permanent emulsions without wetting agents can be formed on continuous flow basis. 

Gamma globulin - the Model 150 VT Ultrasonic Homogenizer was used to solubilize protein as one of the steps in the biosynthesis of gamma globulin from rabbit spleen. 

Gangliosides - immunochemical and structure studies were aided by an ultrasonic treatment as one step during the procedure. 

Gastric mucosa - placing scrapings into a test tube and test tube into Heat Systems specially designed Cup Tip permits these cells to be separated and not broken. 

Germ free - sonication is a good method for preparing sterile emulsions fed to germ free animals. 

Graphite molybdenum disulfide - an excellent dispersion of this lubricant was made in silicate binder. 

Guanine - produces colloidal suspension in 1 minute

Gymnodinium - 10 ml solution completely disrupts in 6 minutes. 

Heart muscle - 1 gm disrupts in 6 minutes. 

HeLa cells - disruption to free virus in a few seconds without injury. 

Hemophilus pertussis - an immunological compound prepared. 

Herpes virus - may be quickly released without injury. 

Histoplasma capsulatum - sonicating for 7 minutes completely ruptured cells prepared by formalin fixation. Good enzymeactivity was obtained. 

Human serum proteins - sonication causes a reproducible change in the electrophoretic behavior of normal human serum consisting of an increase in material migrating in the v and b globulin zones with a reduction in the albumin and y globulin fractions. 

Hydrocortisone - smaller crystals were produced by sonication. 

Hydrophilic vegetable gums - disperses and solubilizes hydrophilic vegetable gums in water; makes dispersions of added particulate matter. 

Intracellular membrane - disruption and particle size reduction obtained in 30-60 seconds. 

Isoenzymes - are selectively activated with respect to time and intensity of treatment. 

Kidney - 1 gm disrupts in 3 minutes. 

Kidney stones - easily broken in seconds in vitro. 

Klebsiella - excellent disruption. 

Lactobacillus - 0.5 gm in 15 ml, complete disruption in 11 minutes. Excellent release of acetokinase. 

L. arabinosis - complete disruption to free virus in 2 minutes without injury. 

Leuconostoc mesenteriodes - ultrasonic treatment in 15 minutes using high power fir disruption. Leukocyte lysozme activity in myelocytic leukemia - the cell suspension was sonicated and samples assayed for lysozyme activity. The lysozyme concentration of the leukocytes ug./10 cells were determined. 

Linoleic acid - made suspension in water in 30 seconds. 

Liped vesicles - excellent results preparing small, unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with Cup Tip attachment, as well as by direct tip sonication. 

Liver tissue - 1 gm homogenizes in less than 1 minute. 

Lung tissue - 1 gm homogenizes in 2 minutes. 

Lymphacytis - complete disruption in 15 seconds. 

Lymphocyte nuclei - complete disruption in 6 minutes. 

Lymphography - direct injection lymphography with a modified radiopaque emulsion was obtained by sonication in a functional procedure producing lymphatic structure detail. 

Lysosomes - released enzymes quickly. 

Malaria protozoa - excellent disruption quickly. 

Maple bark spores - complete disruption in 14 minutes. 

Measles - disruption of virus (measles) antigen clumps present in infected cells on low power. Sonication increased antigen titer 4-8 fold. 

Methanobacillus omelianskii - complete disruption for assaying methane. 1 gm cells wet wt/ml of 0.5M, in 2 minutes. 

Microbacterium lacticum - ultrasonic treatment used for malate dehydrogenase extraction. 

Micrococci - complete disruption in 15 minutes, 13 ml solution. 

Micrococcus lactiliticus - 75 ml of a 20% suspension was disrupted in 15 minutes. A good yield of the enzyme Xanthine dehydrogenase was extracted. 

Mineral rock - excellent for cleaning surfaces between polishing stages. 

Mitochondria - separates from cells without injury. Mitochondria themselves can be broken with longer sonication. Inner membrane sub units also isolated. 

Muscle tissue - 1 gm homogenized in 4 minutes.; heart muscle 6 minutes. 

Mycobacteria - 20 ml growing media completely disrupts in 14 minutes. Breaks clumps quickly. An immunological compound prepared. 

Mycoplasma antibody - a suspension of Campo-W cells treated for 5 minutes gave 12 lines with the sera in a gel diffusion test. The extract was estimated to contain 12.75 mg protein per ml by Blaret reaction. 

Myeloma tumor cells - Complete disruption in 10 minutes. 30% disruption in 2 minutes. 

Myleran - made colloidal suspension and dissolved in approximately 1 minute. 

Naegleri gruberi - this free-living soil ameba was sonicated to release subcellular infectious material. 

N. crassa - nuclease was isolated and purified from conidial extracts after 5 minute treatment. 

Neurospora - 40 ml, 4 minute produces more protein than freeze thawing for study of enzymatic synthesis of cystathionine. 

Nocardia Ostenodes - breaks clumps and disrupts in less than 10 minutes. 

Nucleoprotein - extracted from tissue. May be degraded selectively. 

Oil and water emulsions - permanent, stable emulsions in a few seconds. Particle size reduced to less than 1/2 micron (each case slightly different). Oil in water-water in oil phases can be obtained in same vessel. Continuous flow process is available. 

Oyster shell - small clean hole can be drilled with Tip in 3 minutes. No cracking is produced. 

Paracolon - excellent disruption. 

Parasites - easily separated from red cells in a few seconds. 

Pasteurella pestis - complete disruption in 30 minutes of 20 ml using high power. 

PenicilliumM - complete disruption in 3 minutes. 

Pesticides - ultrasonic treatment resulted in a 16 fold improvement in the potency of the antigen used with Microcrystalline cellulose as a thin-layer absorbent for chromatographic separation. 

Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase - the most potent inhibitors for this enzyme were obtained by making five dispersions with the Model 150 VT Ultrasonic Homogenizer. 

Phospholipid micelles - produced stable preparations for an indefinite period. 

Plant cells - 30% packed plant cells (W/V) and distilled water (depending on type) can be completely disrupted in 1-15 minutes. 

Platelets - complete disruption according to size from 20 seconds to 4 minutes. 

Pneumococci - preserved in formalin for several years; complete disruption in 6 minutes. 

Polio virus - excellent disruption of this most difficult virus. 

Powders - are broken down to a small, relatively uniform particle size. 

PPLO - complete disruption in 2 minutes. 

Propionobacteria - releases sulfhydro groups intact 70 ml of 20% suspension processed in 10 minutes. 

Propionibacterium Shermanii - 2 minutes for extraction of citrate syntheses. 

Proteus - excellent disruption. 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - rapid, complete disruption. 

Pseudomonas fluorescens - 2 gm wet wt in 10 ml, complete disruption in 1 minute. 

Pulmonary cytodiagnosis - the mucus in sputum can be evenly dispersed affording a quick representative sample of cells of cytologic examination. Cells are liberated from the mucus of sputum that has been immersed in 50% alcohol or fixative. 

Ragweed pollen - 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 11 minutes. 

Rat bone - 1/2 gm disrupts in 4 minutes. 

Rat liver - complete disruption in 3 minutes. 

Rat liver mitochondria - ultrasonic treatment has been used extensively for the varied research performed on this material. Disruption time is a matter of seconds. 

Rat skin - complete disruption 1 gm in 4 minutes. 

Red cell - sonicating breaks particle size to 100 Angstroms. Complete disruption in 1 minute. 25 gms/100ml, saline or plasma, sample treated 15 seconds, 35% disruption. Adenosine triphosphate was shown to be membrane bound by this method. 

Reovirus - dissociates cell-bound and aggregated virus. Maximum titer with 4 ml of virus was achieved in 2 minutes. 

Retinal outer segments - sonicating breaks particles down to almost molecular size. 

Rhodopseudomonis palustris - complete disruption in 4 minutes. 

Rhodospirillum rubrum - excellent disruption in a few seconds. 

Rimosus - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. Complete disruption in 5 minutes. 50% disruption in 2 minutes. 

RNA - rapid and thorough re-suspension of 9 PCA pellets during extractions. 

Rocks - excellent for desegregation of sedimentary rock. Excellent for cleaning material rock surfaces between polishing stages. 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) - 9 gm pressed yeast in 18 ml buffer; complete disruption in 8 minutes. Protein release 52 mg/ml from an aged sample. 

Saliva glands - complete disruption. 

Salmonella - various culture media or phosphate buffered saline disintegrated between 40 and 50% in 10-20 minutes. Sonicating was one step in an improved assay for enzyme thiogalactosize transacetylase. 

Salmonella typhimurium and enteritidis - bacteria were suspended in 1/300 volume of original culture, sonicated for 4 minutes and centrifuged for 20 minutes at 20,000 g. Extracts were to catalyze the synthesis of cytidine diphosphate 3, 6-dideozyhexoses. 

Schistosoma mansoni - complete disruption. 

Sedimentary rock - completely disperses flocs with the release of all bound silt and clay particles. 

Sediments - Sonicating readily disperses fine material allowing a quick, neat separation of the sand from silt and clay fractions. 

Serial number restoration - used in crime laboratories to restore obliterated serial numbers. 

Serratia marcescens - complete breakdown in 1 minute for a 12 ml concentrated solution. Serum- quickly homogenized. 

Serum cholinesterase - activated by ultrasonic treatment. Different cholinesterase isoenzymes may be activated selectively and inactivated selectively. 

S. faecalis - excellent disruption in 1 minute. 

S. fragilis - 5 minute yielded excellent release of galactokinase; much more than any other methods. Sub cellular particles may be extracted or disrupted. 

Shale - excellent desegregation of all fine grained sedimentary rocks. 

Shellfish - by drilling a clean hole with the Tip, various fluids or samples may be withdrawn or injected from living shellfish without destroying the animal. 

Shigella - quick disruption. 

Skin - 1 gm disrupts in about 4 minutes. Epidermal homogenates can be extracted that are able to respire and utilize substrate suspension. 

Soil - separates solid particles without the use of oxidants, acids or peptizing agents and yields stable

Sperm (human) - tails are broken instantly, heads are broken in 20 minutes. 

Sputum - Cancer cells are more easily detected after ultrasonic treatment due to even dispersion of cells and sputum, and complete liberation of the cells from sputum. 

Staphylococcus - concentrated solution, 15 ml, 98% disruption in 10 minutes. With 1 gm cells wet wt, to 2 gm water, 54.5 mg/ml of protein was released. 

Starch - obtained by extracting from green plant leaf homogenate. 

Streptococcus, Group A - 20% suspension in 15 ml solution completely disrupts in 15 minutes. 

Streptomyces - monocellular elements from surface-grown colonies obtained in 1 minute. 50% disruption in 2 minutes. Complete disruption in 5 minutes. 

Sub cellular particles - may be separated or broken depending upon power selection and length of time. 

Sulfanilamide - excellent dispersion in less than 1 minute. Continues sonication will produce complete disruption. 

Sulfapyridine - excellent dispersion in less than 1 minute. Continued sonication will produce complete disruption. 

Synovial fluid - sonicating is an excellent means of reducing fluid viscosity. The ultrasonic method is both simpler and faster than using hyaluronidase. 

Tablets - complete disruption in 2-40 seconds depending on type. Excellent for automatic machines. 

Tea - excellent extraction. 

Tetrahymena - disrupts in a few seconds. Enzymes which have been monitored include: succinate, lactate, B-hydroxy butyrate, glutamate and DPNH oxidase, DPNH-cytochromeC reductase and ribonuclease. Specify activity of DPNH oxidase was twice that of the best previous experiments. 

Thermoactinomyces - disruption of hyphae. Homogenization of protein complex without denaturation. 

Thermophile negative - good disruption with in 2 minutes. 

Thermophilic bacillus - Isocitrate lyase was extracted from a spore forming bacillus similar to Stearothermophilus. A washed cell paste suspended in phosphate buffer was sonicated in 1-2 minutes and the supernatant was used for enzyme experiments without further treatment. Extracts could be frozen and stored without loss of activity. 

Thiouric acid - dissolved in a few seconds. 

Thymus cells - complete disruption in 15 seconds

Tissue cultue cells - complete disruption in a few seconds. To avoid damage to free organelles and to obtain intact lyososomes, use low power at short exposure. 

Toxin and antitoxin - one example of many: Toxin preparations of whole cell lystae (WCL) of the Inaba serotype strain 569E of the classic biotype of cholera vibrio were grown on 3% Bacto peptane agar and harvested in distilled water at 18 hours

Toxoplasma gondii - can be separated from white blood cells without injuring. 

T. pyriformis - excellent disruption; 8 enzymes released. 

Transplantation antigens - were extracted from spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. 

Trichomonas foetus - complete disruption in a few seconds. 

Triolein - complete stable emulsion in 2 minutes. 

Trypanosomes - concentrated 10 ml solution; complete disruption in 4 minutes. 

Tumor tissue - disintegrates much faster than normal tissue. 

Uterus muscle - 1/5 gm, 3 cc solution; complete disruption in 4 minutes for coenzyme Q determination. 

Vaccines - numerous advantages such as more antigenic material released than usual and the producing of vaccines not obtainable by classical methods. 

Variuos bacilli - complete disruption in 3 minutes. 

Vibrio comma - excellent disruption. 

Virus extraction - excellent for making experimental vaccines. Evidence of breakage of virus/antibody bonds. Virus ban be extracted at low power without damage, or broken at high power. 

Vitamin E - 30 second sonication put material in solution with a resultant permanent suspension. 

W138 Virus - Cell free V-2 virus obtained in 30 seconds using 6 ml of Veronal buffer with W138 cells containing V-2 virus. 

Yeast - 3 to 10 minutes for complete disruption depending on type. 

Zooplankton - disrupted in less than 1 minute. 
 



 
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